### The 4 in 1 Pattern:

Steps for constructing 4 in 1 Chainmail strip:

- Place 4 closed rings on 1 open ring and then close it
- Add two closed rings to an open and then loop the open ring through 2 of rings in the previous set
- Repeat step 2 until you have a strip of the desired length
- Repeat steps 1-3 until you have created the desired number of strips
- Connect the strips together by weaving open links through four links, 2 from each strip.

### The 6 in 1 Pattern:

Steps for constructing 6 in 1 Chainmail strip:

- Place 4 closed rings on 1 open ring and then close it
- Add two closed rings to an open and then loop the open ring through 4 of rings in the previous set
- Repeat step 2 until you have a strip of the desired length
- Repeat steps 1-3 until you have created the desired number of strips
- Connect the strips together by weaving open links through 6 links, 3 from each strip.
- Match any additional rings needed, ie., a ring through the first 4

### The 8 in 1 pattern:

Steps for constructing 8 in 1 Chainmail strip:

- Place 4 closed rings on 1 open ring and then close it
- Add two closed rings to an open and then loop the open ring through 4 of rings in the previous set
- Add two closed rings to an open and then loop the open ring through 6 of rings in the previous set
- Repeat step 3 until you have a strip of the desired length
- Repeat steps 1-4 until you have created the desired number of strips
- Connect the strips together by weaving open links through 8 links, 4 from each strip.
- Match any additional rings needed, ie., a ring through the first four and then through the first 6

### Adding Single Rows:

Adding a single row of mail to an existing strip is accomplished by weaving open rings through the bottom row of the strip using the technique described for connecting strips

### Adding Double Rows:

To add double rows, you need to start with 2 closed rings on one open ring. Connect the open link through the first 2 links in the strip. From this point on, add one closed link to the open and then connect it through the appropriate number of rings on the strip and in front of it. Eg., for 4 in1 the open link should have 1 closed link and then attach to 2 rings from the strip and 1 ring from the previous addition. For 6 in 1, it would have 1 closed and attach to 3 from the strip and two from the previous addition.

## Appendix A: Constructing a Wire Crank

The wire crank is an essential tool used to convert wire into springs or coils. The springs are then cut to form the individual rings used to produce chainmail.

### Building a Period-style Wire Crank:

The materials used to construct a crank are as follows:

· 2 1’ pieces of 2×4

· 1 2’ x 8” piece of plywood (or equivalent)

· 1 2’ piece of 3/8” dowel (or whatever size you want your rings to be)

· 1 6” piece of a 1” dowel

· 1 6” 1×2

· A drill

· 4 Drill bits (7/16”, 3/8”, 1”, and 5/64” or 3/32”)

· Screwdriver

· 4 2” wood screws

· Tack hammer

· 2 2” nails (small gauge)

· 2 Carter Pins

Construction Steps

1. Drill a hole in the center of the 2x4s about 1” from the top using the 7/16” bit. This hole will be large enough for the dowel to slide through an rotate smoothly.

2. Attach the 2x4s to the plywood using the wood screws. I recommend attaching them centered and about 1” in from the edge.

3. Drill two holes, 1” and 3/8”, in the 1×2, one at each end.

4. Push the 1” dowel into the 1” hole and secure with a nail through the end of the 1×2.

5. Attach the handle you just made to the 3/8” dowel in the same manner.

6. When everything is dry, slide the crank through the holes in the 2x4s. position the crank so that there is about a 1”space between the handle and first 2×4.

7. You will now need to mark three points on the 3/8” dowel. The first 2 will be for restraining clips to prevent the crank from sliding out prematurely. The marks should be made on the outside of the 2x4s. The third point should be about ½” in from the 2×4 farthest from the handle. The third point will be the hole to secure the wire.

8. Remove the crank from the jig.

9. Using the smaller bit, drill holes in the crank at the points you have marked.

10. Place a carter pin in the hole closest to the crank handle and place the crank back into the jig

11. Push the remaining carter pin into the hole on the other end of the crank.

12. You are now ready to use the crank to produce springs.

**A Modern Wire Crank:**

A much faster crank can be made from a variable speed drill and a 3/8” dowel. I do not recommend using a dowel over 1′ in length as it will be unwieldly. The first thing you need to do is to drill a hole through the dowel large enough to insert the wire. Once this is done, insert the dowel in the drill and tighten it down. You are now ready to produce your springs (Aren’t modern conveniences wonderful!)

I have also heard tell of someone using a metal lathe with a custom feeder jig for the wire, but I don’t know too many people who have one of these laying around their house.

## Appendix B: Making a Chainmail Coif

The following instructions can be modified to construct a more form fitting coif. If followed exactly, they will produce one with the same dimensions as mine, ie it will fit my head quite well. The measurement I used to determine how many rings I needed to fit around my head was 24”. This is measured just above your eyebrows and all the way around.

1. Link 12 rings on a single center ring and lay flat.

2. Attach 12 rings by connecting 1 open ring through 2 closed such that the added rings will overlap the previous by 1 ring.

3. Repeat step 2

4. Repeat step 2 and then add another ring to every second ring in the previous level. The expansion rings should only connect to one closed ring. This will expand the ring count to 18

5. Using the same method as in step 2, add 18 rings

6. Repeat Step 5 again and then add expansion rings every second ring. You will now have a base of 27

7. Add 27 rings and then add expansion rings every 3^{rd} ring. The level will now be expanded to 36

8. Add 36 rings

9. Repeat step 8 and then add expansion rings every 2nd ring. You will now have a base of 54 rings.

10. Add 54 rings as the next level.

11. Repeat step 10 until the caplet created ends just above your eyebrows.

12. Count the number of rings that hang above your face. This number will be used to determine how long of a strip you will need to add to go around the back of your head; Subtract the number from 54 to get the number of rings required. Most likely this will be around 16 rings.

13. Construct enough strips of chainmail of the appropriate length (38 rings) to reach from the base of your caplet to the base of your neck.

14. To construct the mantle, assemble 2 strips of mail 60 rings long and connect them.

15. Add expansion rings to the bottom row every 3^{rd} ring, this will bring you to 80 rings

16. Assemble 2 more strips of mail 80 rings in length and connect them

17. Add expansion rings to the last row every 4^{th} ring, to bring the total to 100 rings

18. Add 2 more strips of mail 100 rings in length.